Sacbrood is a viral infection of brood (virus SBV).
It was one of the first insect viruses to be identified (1917).
It looks much alike with Acute Paralysis Virus.

On larvae, the virus is detected in the fat, muscle tissue and trachea.
In adult’s bees, is detected in large quantities in their tissues.
The virus lies mainly in the head, especially in sub-pharynges glands from where the virus passes to larvae.
Initially during an infection, the virus particles are multiplied in the developing larva, which appear to develop normally until after being capped over
The infected larvae turn a pale yellow colour; they remain stretched out on their backs, heads towards the top of the capped cell.
Liquid accumulates between the body of the larva and its unshed skin, thereafter the larvae become as a fluid-filled sac, hence the name
The larvae will eventually die and begin to dry out, turning from a dark brown to black colour, giving rise to the characteristic of ‘Chinese slippers’ or ‘gondola-shaped’ scales.
As the larvae die, the worker bees will uncap the cells in order to expose them
There are no treatments available for sacbrood, but the virus will not usually be a large problem, tending to affect small areas of brood only.
However, in cases where there are large areas of brood clearly affected then it would be best to re-queen the colony.

The bees infected by the virus, do not present any external change. However they can not carry pollen, thus are converted into collector bees but unable to collect and carry pollen.
More often the bees die prematurely, without showing any symptoms.
Infectious are the white, rotten larvae only. During the cleaning process of the cells, the bees are infested by the virus and through the sub-pharynges glands they transfer the virus into the brood’s food.
The disease spreads rapidly in the spring, when the rate of infected catering-bees is greater.
The virus seems to survive the winter in the adult’s bees. The brown colour dried larvae are not infectious.

The worker bees will be in a reasonable position to successfully remove the dead brood from the cells.
Exchange of infected wax helps the spread of infection. In cases where there is a large infection of the brood it would be better to replace the queens in the colony.

The main cause for the development of this virus is the inadequate supply of food to the brood. The sacbrood appears as a side effect of varroasis when the number of mites is very large, so it must be taken care for the reduction of infectious load of varroa mites.

By our devised solutionin which we re mixing Aloe vera Gel No 15, Vitamins B12 and Bee pollen tablets no 26, and by sparying the solution onto the bees, we have succesfully overcomed this condition and our Greek beekeepers are now ejoying very strong healthy collonies.

For information and application please contact:
Athens - Greece
Phones: +30.210.9823241 / +30.6944.710993
e-mail: info@bees-aloevea.com


CHALKBROOD - Ascosphaera apis

Symptoms and cause

Chalkbrood will probably be seen in most colonies at some time but at varying degrees of severity. It is caused by the fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis. Spores of the fungus enter the developing larva through the cuticle or orally with contaminated food. These spores germinate and the hyphae of the fungus invade the cells, killing the larva (usually after it has been capped over). Initially the dead larvae will be covered with a white cotton wool-like growth and may swell to fill the cell taking on its shape. After a time these will dry out and shrink to give the characteristic ‘mummies’ that are chalk-like at first turning to a greyish black colour as the fungal fruiting bodies develop. Worker bees uncap the cells of dead larvae so the mummies will be clearly visible; they will also be removed by the workers and may be seen in high numbers on the floorboard or at the entrance to the hive. In very heavily infected colonies, the workers will not be able to uncap all of the affected cells and if a comb is shaken the mummies may be heard rattling in the cells.

SpreadEach chalkbrood mummy produces millions of spores that will adhere to cells and adult bees. It is these spores that are the infective stage of the fungus and may remain viable for up to 15 years. The spores can be spread from hive to hive by drifting bees, or by the beekeeper on equipment and frames moved between colonies.

Treatment and control
A good, strong healthy colony will usually be able to tolerate chalkbrood and it is not usually a serious disease. However, in smaller colonies or those under stress (for example suffering heavy varroa infestations,or death caused to pesticides, ot sudden freezing temperatures during spring time, or lack of worker bees) chalkbrood can be a problem. The best method for keeping chalkbrood to a minimum is the maintenance good strong stocks of bees, although in particularly bad cases the problem may be solved by re-queening with a young and vigorous queen from a chalkbrood-free colony. Choice of apiary site is also important and you should avoid damp sites.

Treatment with Aloevera Products by spaying the bees, or by injecting on to the frames, with the appropriate solution is very effective for chalkbrood elimination.

Our proceedure for population increase, thus secuing very strong healthy colonies, is the best way in preventing the appearanc of chalkbrrod.

(See also POPULATION INCREASE in our blog)

Mixing Aloe Vera products with the syrup is not recommended. It is both waist of time and money.

For information and applications please contact
Athens - Greece
Phone: +30.210.9823241 / + 30.6944-710993
e-mail: info@bees-aloevera.com



THE SUCCESS STORY of the Nosemosis and Nosema Apis’ elimination goes on….
Beekeeper: PARADHISIS ARGIRIS – Location: Kos Island , East Greece

Argiris noticed symptoms of Nosemosis caused by Nosema apis, in the entire apiary once the season of forage in pine trees ended on about September 2007. He had not means for microscopic analysis, however after visual examination he described the symptom as follows:

-The bees were crawling in the front of the hives inactive, slothful and unable to fly
-Plenty of yellow to brown streaks in the flight deck, inside and outside the hives and in the environment around...
We suggested THREE applications with the Aloe Vera Drink No 15 along with the mixture of Bee Propolis tablets.

Selected application: By spraying the bees inside the hives.
The three applications effected during the period of first half of October 2007.

Beginning of November 2007, Argiris reported to us the following:
1.Five days after the first application, he noticed that the amount of streaks inside and outside the hives was reduced down to 50%.
2.Five days after the second application, he noticed not any more remainders inside the hives, but only in the flight deck.
3.Three days after the third application all symptoms of Nosemosis have been disappeared, the bees returned to a remarkable health status, becoming very active.

We checked the status of Argiris’ apiary at the beginning of the year 2008, and a very happy Argiris declared that he suffered no losses during the winter time, the bees’ extremely good health is maintained with very active and strongly flying bees and she shall repeat the applications in May purely for prevention purposes.

We thank Argiris for his reports.

Aloe Vera Center - The “Nosemosis and Nosema Apis busters”.Athens, Greece
+30.210.9823241 & +30.6944.710993
e-mail: info@bees-aloevera.com